Apraxia is a motor speech disorder that makes it hard to speak. It can take a lot of work to learn to say sounds and words. Children with the diagnosis of apraxia of speech generally have a good understanding of language and know what they want to say. However, they have difficulty learning or carrying out the complex movements that underlie speech.
Articulation Disorder and Speech Delay
Articulation disorders involve errors (e.g., distortions and substitutions) in production of individual speech sounds. Common articulation errors are the /r/, the /l/ and the /s/ sound.
Auditory Comprehension (Receptive Language)
A receptive language disorder is an impairment in the understanding of spoken language. Receptive language is different than expressive language as it deals with comprehending language, not using language (which is expressive language). A child may show difficulty following directions, understanding questions, identifying objects and pictures, understanding concepts such as spatial terms or other adjectives.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism is a developmental disability that manifests in difficulties with social skills and communication. Autism can be mild or severe with great variation among individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an estimated 1 in 59 children in the United States today.
Expressive language disorder is an impairment in the ability to to use spoken messages/signs/ or other modalities to communicate effectively or in an age appropriate manner. Expressive language disorders may be developmental, appearing as the child is learning to talk, or acquired due to damage to the brain.
Late talkers show a good understanding of language, typically developing play skills, motor skills, thinking skills, and social skills, but have a limited spoken vocabulary for his or her age. A late talker would be defined as a child showing an expressive vocabulary of fewer than 50 words and no two-word combinations by 24 months of age. Late talkers may be at risk for developing language and/or literacy difficulties as they age.
A phonological disorder is a speech sound disorder that presents as predictable, rule-based errors or patterns of errors that affect more than one sound. These disorders are broader in scope and more complex than simple articulation deficits and usually affect a whole "class" of sounds such as:
-omitting all ending sounds
-making sounds that should be long /s/, short /t/.
Social Communication Disorders
Social communication disorder is characterized by difficulties with the use of verbal and nonverbal language for social purposes. Primary difficulties are in social interaction, social cognition, and pragmatics. Specific deficits are evident in the individual’s ability to vary speech style, take the perspective of others, understand and appropriately use the rules for verbal and nonverbal communication.
Stuttering, also known as dysfluency, is a disorder in which the flow of speech is broken by repetitions (repeating a sound/syllable/word), holding out a sound for too long, or abnormal stoppages (no sound) of sounds and syllables. There may or may not be unusual facial and body movements associated with the effort to speak.