What should my child be able to do?

Apraxia of Speech


Birth - 3 months

  • Startles at loud sounds.

  • Quiets or smiles when you talk.

  • Seems to recognize your voice. Quiets if crying. 

  • Makes cooing sounds.

  • Cries change for different needs.

  • Smiles at people.


4 - 6 months

  • Coos and babbles when playing alone or with you. 

  • Makes speech-like babbling sounds, like pa, ba, and mi.

  • Giggles and laughs and shows warm smiles toward others

  • Makes sounds when happy or upset.

  • Moves her eyes in the direction of sounds.

  • Responds to changes in your tone of voice.

  • Notices toys that make sounds.

  • Pays attention to music.


7 months - 1 year

  • Babbles long strings of sounds, like mimi upup babababa.

  • Points to objects and shows them to others.

  • Uses gestures like waving bye, reaching for “up,” and shaking his head no.

  • Imitates different speech sounds.

  • Turns and looks in the direction of sounds.

  • Looks when you point.

  • Turns when you call her name.

  • Understands words for common items and people—words like cup, truck, juice, and daddy.

  • Starts to respond to simple words and phrases, like “No,” “Come here,” and “Want more?”

  • Plays games with you, like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake.

  • Listens to songs and stories for a short time. 

  • Says 1 or 2 words, like hi, dog, dada, mama, or uh-oh. This will happen around his first birthday.


13 mos - 18 mos

  • Uses a lot of new words.

  • Uses p, b, m, h, and w in words.

  • Starts to name pictures in books.

  • Asks questions, like “What's that?”, “Who’s that?”, and “Where’s kitty?” 

  • Puts 2 words together, like "more apple," "no bed," and "mommy book." 


19 mos - 24 mos 

  • Expressive language disorder is an impairment in the ability to  to use spoken messages/signs/ or other modalities to communicate effectively or in an age appropriate manner. Expressive language disorders may be developmental, appearing as the child is learning to talk, or acquired due to damage to the brain. 


2 - 3 years

  • Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n in words.

  • Uses spatial words like in, on, and under. 

  • Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.

  • People who know your child can understand him.

  • Asks “Why?”

  • Puts 3 words together to talk about things. May repeat some words and sounds. 

  • Understands opposites, like go–stop, big–little, and up–down.

  • Follows 2-part directions, like "Get the spoon and put it on the table."

  • Understands new words quickly.


3-4 years

  • A phonological disorder is a speech sound disorder that presents as predictable, rule-based errors or patterns of errors that affect more than one sound.  These disorders are broader in scope and more complex than simple articulation deficits and usually affect a whole "class" of sounds such as:

  • -omitting all ending sounds 

  • -making sounds that should be long /s/, short /t/. 


4-5 years

  •   Social communication disorder is characterized by difficulties with the use of verbal and nonverbal language for social purposes. Primary difficulties are in social interaction, social cognition, and pragmatics. Specific deficits are evident in the individual’s ability to vary speech style, take the perspective of others, understand and appropriately use the rules for verbal and nonverbal communication.



  • Stuttering, also known as dysfluency, is a disorder in which the flow of speech is broken by repetitions (repeating a sound/syllable/word), holding out a sound for too long, or abnormal stoppages (no sound) of sounds and syllables. There may or may not be unusual facial and body movements associated with the effort to speak.